<TED Worksheet (Free)>
54. Go ahead, make up new words! 
Erin McKean
<6:52>   November 2014

 

Questions
(PDF)   (Word)

Answers
(PDF)   (Word)

Trascript

<Key Vocabulary>
Write the meaning(s) of each word. Write an example sentence (example sentences) if you need.

(1) lexicographer

(2) grammar

(3) unconscious

(4) plural

(5) experiment

(6) hoodie

(7) obey

(8) gravity

(9) linguist

(10) discourage

(11) creative

(12) whippersnapper

(13) squish

(14) compound

(15) function

(16) adjective

(17) silly




================
<Questions>

  1. What do lexicographers do?

 

 

  1. The following section describes two kinds of grammar that are presented in the speech. Fill in the blanks.

 Grammar 1:  

The grammar that lives inside

your (1)                          .

  • It’s the (2)                          rules

     that you follow when you

     speak that language.

  • It is like a law of (3)                      .

(e.g.) When you leave the house,

your mom won’t say like

“don’t forget to obey the law of

gravity.”

 

Grammar 2:  

The grammar that are

more about (4)                         .

  • If you have a hat, nobody will tell you “Don’t wear hats on your feet.” Instead people will tell you where you can wear it, who can wear it, etc.

 
 

  • Linguists often call it  (5)                   ,

     as opposed to grammar.




  1. The speaker mentions there are six ways to make new words in English. Fill in the blanks.

Method 1:  

(1)                   them from  other languages

  • Linguists call it (2)                         .

(e.g.) kumquat (Chinese) / caramel (French) / ninja (Japanese)

 

Method 2:  

(3)                       two other English words together.

  • This is called (4)                           

 

  • It is like (5)                      

    If you use enough force, you can put

    any two words together.

(e.g.)

heartbroken / bookworm /sandcastle

 

Method 3:  

squishing two words together, but some

parts (6)                              off

  • They are called blend words.

(e.g.)

brunch (breakfast + lunch) /

motel (motor + hotel) /

edutainment (education + entertainment) /

electrocute (electric + execute)

 

Method 4:  

changing how words

(7)                                         

  • It is called functional shift.
  • You take a word that acts as one part of speech, and you change it into another part of speech.

(e.g.)

commercial

= It is a noun, but it used to be an adjective.

 

Method 5:  back-formation

  • You take a word and squish it down a little bit.

(e.g.)

We had the word

(8)                                      before

we had the word “edit.”

 

Method 6:  

taking the (9)                    letters

of something and squishing them together   

(e.g.)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

= (10)                                     

 

4. The speaker mentioned some reasons why we should make new words. Which of the following reasons was not mentioned?

  1. New words will allow us to express our ideas and get our meaning across.
  2. We can do it right now at this moment.
  3. New words grab people’s attention.
  4. Making catchy words will make you smarter because you need to think hard. 




================
<Answers>

  1. What do lexicographers do?

They make dictionaries (and try to put all the words possible into the dictionary).

 

  1. The following section describes two kinds of grammar that are presented in the speech. Fill in the blanks.

 Grammar 1:  

The grammar that lives inside

your (1)    brain        .

  • It’s the (2)   unconscious     rules

     that you follow when you

     speak that language.

  • It is like a law of (3)   nature  .

(e.g.) When you leave the house,

your mom won’t say like

“don’t forget to obey the law of

gravity.”

 

Grammar 2:  

The grammar that are

more about (4)  manners  .

  • If you have a hat, nobody will tell you “Don’t wear hats on your feet.” Instead people will tell you where you can wear it, who can wear it, etc.

 

  • Linguists often call it  (5)    usage    ,

     as opposed to grammar.




  1. The speaker mentions there are six ways to make new words in English. Fill in the blanks.

Method 1:  

(1)   stealing    them from  other languages

  • Linguists call it (2)  borrowing  .

(e.g.) kumquat (Chinese) / caramel (French) / ninja (Japanese)

 

Method 2:  

(3)  squishing   two other English words together.

  • This is called (4)  compounding   

 

  • It is like (5)  Lego   

    If you use enough force, you can put

    any two words together.

(e.g.)

heartbroken / bookworm /sandcastle

 

Method 3:  

squishing two words together, but some

parts (6)  fall    off

  • They are called blend words.

(e.g.)

brunch (breakfast + lunch) /

motel (motor + hotel) /

edutainment (education + entertainment) /

electrocute (electric + execute)

 

Method 4:  

changing how words

(7)  operate    

  • It is called functional shift.
  • You take a word that acts as one part of speech, and you change it into another part of speech.

(e.g.)

commercial

= It is a noun, but it used to be an adjective.

 

Method 5:  back-formation

  • You take a word and squish it down a little bit.

(e.g.)

We had the word

(8)  editor    before

we had the word “edit.”

 

Method 6:  

taking the (9)  first    letters

of something and squishing them together   

(e.g.)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

= (10)  NASA    

 

  1. The speaker mentioned some reasons why we should make new words. Which of the following reasons was not mentioned?
    1. New words will allow us to express our ideas and get our meaning across.
    2. We can do it right now at this moment.
    3. New words grab people’s attention.
    4. Making catchy words will make you smarter because you need to think hard. 

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