<TED Worksheet (Free)>
70.Why do our bodies age?
Monica Menesini
 
<3:55>  September 2015

 

 

Questions
PDF)(Word

Answers
PDF)(Word

Trascript

<Key Vocabulary>
Write the meaning(s) of each word. Write an example sentence (example sentences) if you need.

(1) astounding

(2) pledge

(3) feat

(4) counteract

(5) intuitively

(6) intrinsic

(7) subsequently

(8) lesion

(9) organelle

(10) mitochondria

(11) regulate

(12) deteriorate

(13) newborn

(14) prominent

(15) degenerative

(16) regeneration

(17) extremity

(18) telomere

(19) senescent

(20) proliferate

(21) halt

(22) replenish

(23) revolve

(24) intercellular





<Questions> 

  1. What is so special about Jeanne Calment?

 

 

  1. According to the speech, each of the following may be a meaning of aging except
  1. understanding the meaning of life
  2. growing up
  3. growing old
  4. changing in the structure and function of the body’s molecules and cells

 

  1. Scientists have identified some physiological traits of aging. Fill in the blanks.

Point #1: Our bodies accumulate genetic damage in the form of (1)                       lesions. 

  1. These occur naturally when the body’s DNA (2)                      , but also in non-dividing cells.
    → Organelles called (3)                      are especially prone to this damage.
  2. Mitochondria produce adenosine triphosphate, or (4)                      , the main (5)                      energy source for all cellular processes.
    → They also (6)                      many different cell activities and play an important role in (7)                           cell death.
  3. If mitochondrial function declines, then cells and, later on, whole (8)                      deteriorate, too.

 



Point #2: Some changes occur in the expression patterns of genes, also known as (9)                                           (2 words).

  1. This affects the body’s (10)                      and (11)                      .
  2. Genes silenced or expressed only at low levels in (12)                           become prominent in older people.
    → It will lead to the development of (13)                           diseases, like Alzheimer’s, which will accelerate aging.

 

Point #3: Cellular (14)                           , the very stuff of life, declines as we age.

  1. The DNA in our cells is packaged within chromosomes, each of which has two protective regions at the extremities called (15)                           .
    → They will shorten every time cells replicate, and cells stop replicating and die if they become too (16)                      .
    → This will slow the body’s ability to (17)                      . itself.
  2. Cells increasingly grow (18)                           , a process that halts the cell cycle in times of risk.

 

Point #4: Stem cells decrease in number and tend to lose their regenerative potential, affecting tissue renewal and maintenance of our (19)                      original functions.

  1. Cells will lose the ability to function properly.
    → They stop being able to do quality control on (20)                      , causing the accumulation of damaged and potentially toxic nutrients.
  2. Intercellular communication also (21)                      .
    → Ultimately, undermining the body’s functional ability.





<Answers>

  1. What is so special about Jeanne Calment?

She passed away when she was 122 years and 164 days, which is the oldest in history.

  1. According to the speech, each of the following may be a meaning of aging except
  1. understanding the meaning of life
  2. growing up
  3. growing old
  4. changing in the structure and function of the body’s molecules and cells

 

  1. Scientists have identified some physiological traits of aging. Fill in the blanks.

Point #1: Our bodies accumulate genetic damage in the form of (1)  DNA    lesions. 

  1. These occur naturally when the body’s DNA (2)  replicates   , but also in non-dividing cells.
    → Organelles called (3)  mitochondria   are especially prone to this damage.
  2. Mitochondria produce adenosine triphosphate, or (4)  ATP   , the main (5)  energy   source for all cellular processes.
    → They also (6)  regulate   many different cell activities and play an important role in (7)  programmed   cell death.
  3. If mitochondrial function declines, then cells and, later on, whole (8)  organs   deteriorate, too.

 



Point #2: Some changes occur in the expression patterns of genes, also known as (9)  epigenetic alternations   (2 words).

  1. This affects the body’s (10)  tissues   and (11)  cells   .
  2. Genes silenced or expressed only at low levels in (12)  newborns   become prominent in older people.
    → It will lead to the development of (13)  degenerative   diseases, like Alzheimer’s, which will accelerate aging.

 

Point #3: Cellular (14)  regeneration   , the very stuff of life, declines as we age.

  1. The DNA in our cells is packaged within chromosomes, each of which has two protective regions at the extremities called (15)  telomeres   .
    → They will shorten every time cells replicate, and cells stop replicating and die if they become too (16)  short   .
    → This will slow the body’s ability to (17)  renew   . itself.
  2. Cells increasingly grow (18)  senescent   , a process that halts the cell cycle in times of risk.

 

Point #4: Stem cells decrease in number and tend to lose their regenerative potential, affecting tissue renewal and maintenance of our (19)  organs   original functions.

  1. Cells will lose the ability to function properly.
    → They stop being able to do quality control on (20)  proteins   , causing the accumulation of damaged and potentially toxic nutrients.
  2. Intercellular communication also (21)  slows   .
    → Ultimately, undermining the body’s functional ability.

 

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