<TED Worksheet (Free)>
72.The science of hearing
Douglas L. Oliver
 
<5:18> June 2018

 

 

Questions
PDF)(Word

Answers
PDF)(Word

Trascript

<Key Vocabulary>
Write the meaning(s) of each word. Write an example sentence (example sentences) if you need.

(1) lap (of waves)

(2) dispatch

(3) restore

(4) comprise

(5) cochlea

(6) eardrum

(7) tympanic membrane

(8) (ear) canal

(9) anvil

(10) stapes

(11) chamber

(12) basilar membrane





<Questions>  

  1. Our auditory system, which can recognize sounds and identify the locations of targets, consists of two parts: the ear and the brain. The following section explains how they function. Fill in the blanks.
  1. [Ear]
  2. Its task is to convert (1)                        energy into (2)                        signals.
  1. [Brain]
  2. Its task is to (3)                        and (4)                        the information which the ear sends.
  1. [How it works]
  2. 1. The source of a sound creates (5)                        that travel as waves of pressure through (6)                        in air, liquids, or solids.
  3.  
  4. 2. Our inner ear, called the cochlea, is filled with (7)                                                (2 words) fluids.
  5.  
  6. <Problem #1: How do we convert sound waves into waves in the fluid?>
  7. Solution: (8)                        and the tiny (9)                        of the (10)                        ear.
  1. Step.1
  2. When sound enters the ear canal, it hits the (11)                        and makes it vibrate like
    the head of a drum.
  1.  
  2. Step. 2
  3. The vibrating eardrum jerks a bone called the (12)                        , which hits the anvil and moves the third bone called the (13)                        ,
  1.  
  2. Step. 3
  3. Its motion pushes the (14)                        within the long chambers of the cochlea.
  4.  
  5. Step. 4
  6. The basilar membrane, a surface of the cochlea, is lined with hair cells that have specialized components called stereocilia, which move with the vibrations of the cochlear fluid and the basilar membrane.
  7.  
  8. Step. 5
  9. This movement triggers a signal that travels through the hair cells into the
    (14)                        nerve, then onward to the (15)                        .

 

  1. When a sound makes the basilar membrane vibrate,
  1. only selected hair cells move, depending on the frequency of the sound.
  2. only selected hair cells move, depending on your age.
  3. every hair cell moves, but some of them move in the opposite direction.
  4. every hair cell moves, but their frequencies are different from each other.

 



  1. How does the brain identify where a sound is coming from?

 

  1. What is the third most common chronic disease in the world?

 

  1. According to the speech, what are two things that can kill hair cells, preventing signals from traveling from the ear to the brain?
    (1)                                               
    (2)                                               

 

  1. What do diseases like osteosclerosis do to the tiny bones in the ear?

 

  1. If you have tinnitus,
  1. you will gradually become deaf.
  2. you will not be able to identify high-frequency sounds.
  3. you will not be able to identify low-frequency sounds.
  4. you will hear a sound when there isn’t one.

 





<Answers>

  1. Our auditory system, which can recognize sounds and identify the locations of targets, consists of two parts: the ear and the brain. The following section explains how they function. Fill in the blanks.
  1. [Ear]
  2. Its task is to convert (1)  sound   energy into (2)  neural   signals.
  1. [Brain]
  2. Its task is to (3)  receive   and (4)  process    the information which the ear sends.
  1. [How it works]
  2. 1. The source of a sound creates (5)  vibrations    that travel as waves of pressure through (6)  particles    in air, liquids, or solids.
  3.  
  4. 2. Our inner ear, called the cochlea, is filled with (7)  saltwater-like    (2 words) fluids.
  5. <Problem #1: How do we convert sound waves into waves in the fluid?>
  6. Solution: (8)  eardrum (tympanic membrane)   and the tiny (9)  bones   of the (10)  middle   ear.
  1. Step.1
  2. When sound enters the ear canal, it hits the (11)  eardrum   and makes it vibrate like
    the head of a drum.
  1.  
  2. Step. 2
  3. The vibrating eardrum jerks a bone called the (12)  hammer    , which hits the anvil and moves the third bone called the (13)  stapes    ,
  1.  
  2. Step. 3
  3. Its motion pushes the (14)  fluid   within the long chambers of the cochlea.
  4.  
  5. Step. 4
  6. The basilar membrane, a surface of the cochlea, is lined with hair cells that have specialized components called stereocilia, which move with the vibrations of the cochlear fluid and the basilar membrane.
  7.  
  8. Step. 5
  9. This movement triggers a signal that travels through the hair cells into the
    (14)  auditory    nerve, then onward to the (15)  brain    .

 

  1. When a sound makes the basilar membrane vibrate,
  1. only selected hair cells move, depending on the frequency of the sound.
  2. only selected hair cells move, depending on your age.
  3. every hair cell moves, but some of them move in the opposite direction.
  4. every hair cell moves, but their frequencies are different from each other.

 



  1. How does the brain identify where a sound is coming from?

It compares the sounds coming into the two ears.

  1. What is the third most common chronic disease in the world?

hearing loss

  1. According to the speech, what are two things that can kill hair cells, preventing signals from traveling from the ear to the brain?
    (1)  exposure to loud noises   
    (2)  (some) drugs    

 

  1. What do diseases like osteosclerosis do to the tiny bones in the ear?

They freeze the tiny bones in the ear so they no longer vibrate.

  1. If you have tinnitus,
  1. you will gradually become deaf.
  2. you will not be able to identify high-frequency sounds.
  3. you will not be able to identify low-frequency sounds.
  4. you will hear a sound when there isn’t one.

 

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